Han china and classical Athens population was distributed differently. ), Debating the Athenian Cultural Revolution: Art, Literature, Philosophy, and Politics 430-380 BC (Cambridge 2007): 27-43; “Demography and Classical Athens,” in C. Holleran and A. Pudsey (eds. He fostered arts and literature and gave to Athens a splendor which would never return throughout its history. Athens consisted of two distinct parts: The city was surrounded by defensive walls from the Bronze Age and they were rebuilt and extended over the centuries. The discussion of metics omits further recent contributions by R. F. Kennedy, D. Kamen, and J. Sosin, among others. The war ended with the complete defeat of Athens in 404. This set a mo… The Acropolis was just south of the centre of this walled area. Since the defeat was largely blamed on democratic politicians such as Cleon and Cleophon, there was a brief reaction against democracy, aided by the Spartan army (the rule of the Thirty Tyrants). Jesús David Quintero Aleans . We have also to deal with the fact that the institutions that E. E. Cohen sees as emblematic of the fourth century, such as commercialization and banking, probably emerged already in the fifth, albeit without the participation of women and slaves. However, Akrigg’s further speculations that fifth-century imperial Athens was on a path of unsustainable economic inequality are harder to maintain. The Hellenic League led by the Spartan King Leonidas led 7,000 men to hold the narrow passageway of Thermopylae against the 100,000–250,000 army of Xerxes, during which Leonidas and 300 other Spartan elites were killed. Athens - Athens - History: The site of Athens has been inhabited since the Neolithic Period (before 3000 bce). [6] A (too) brief discussion of the Brea Decree (IG I3 46) concludes that “it is hard…to take the [decree] as unambiguous evidence for the Athenian poor benefitting hugely from the empire” (220). Population & Map Approximately 140,000; Approximately 40,000 men were citizens; and slaves (about 40,000). Opposition to Sparta enabled Athens to establish a Second Athenian League. The Athenian democracy provided a number of governmental resources to its population in order to encourage participation in the democratic process. Xerxes had built himself a throne on the coast in order to see the Greeks defeated. During the winter of 338 BC /337 BC Macedonia, Athens and other Greek states became part of the League of Corinth. Slaves were the lowest class in Athenian society, but according to many contemporary accounts they were far less harshly treated than in most other Greek cities. Chapter 2, “Population Structures,” approaches the total population of Attica, for which we have no explicit ancient evidence, according to age structure and sex structure. The book shows that basic demographic questions are inseparable from other historical lines of inquiry concerning society, politics, economics, and, for lack of a better term, social peace. Learn more about the history and significance of Athens in this article. It is widely referred to as the cradle of Western Civilization, and the birthplace of democracy,[4] largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then-known European continent.[5]. The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles. Many governmental posts in classical Athens were chosen by lot, in an attempt to discourage corruption and patronage. there were roughly 50,000 adult male citizens, 25,000 metics, and 100,000 slaves in Athens. 3. He was an expert in South Italian vases, namely the red-figured pottery produced by Greeks and the local population living in South Italy and Sicily in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. BMCR provides the opportunity to comment on reviews in order to enhance scholarly communication. However, other Greek cities, including Athens, turned against Thebes, and its dominance was brought to an end at the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC) with the death of its leader, the military genius Epaminondas. In conclusion he makes the salutary point that there can be no single explanation for the development of Athenian society but that demography ought to be one tool among many for understanding history. 2 (Leiden 2008): 427-523. By 432 BC, Athens had become the most populous city-state in Hellas. This was due to healthy standards of living and an increase of medical inventions. Much of it represents a thorough historiographical exploration of the status quaestionis, laying out with great care what can and cannot be said about Athens’ population based on what evidence we possess, as well as articulating the extent to which previous scholars’ approaches are compatible or not. The population’s needs for barley, olive oil, and wine are helpfully set out in Table 6.1; the obvious takeaway is that Athens depended on imports to meet its needs, given its own limited area of cultivable land. That provoked two Persian invasions of Greece, both of which were repelled under the leadership of the soldier-statesmen Miltiades and Themistocles (see Persian Wars). The methodology of earlier scholars has been criticised in general terms but their conclusions have not been seriously challenged. Between the Parthenon and Erechtheion was the colossal Statue of Athena Promachos, or the "Fighter in the Front," whose helmet and spear was the first object on the Acropolis visible from the sea. The author also now attends to the issue of the wealth distribution of Attica, discussing previous arguments by R. Osborne, L. Foxhall, and G. Kron. Greek city-states of the ancient world did in fact remain limited in size. This content was originally written for an undergraduate or Master's program. In 403, democracy was restored by Thrasybulus and an amnesty declared. Scheidel has suggested that the redistributive and military aspects of the Athenian democracy put a brake on the usual runaway inequality involved in growth, but Akrigg rightly points out that Scheidel’s picture of Athens stems from the fourth century, after the ruinous effects of the war and the plague. In 480 the Persians returned under a new ruler, Xerxes I. Finally Thebes defeated Sparta in 371 in the Battle of Leuctra. Most offices were filled by lot, although the ten strategoi (generals) were elected. Athens is named after Athena, the Greek goddess of wisdom and war, and daughter of Zeus. In Chapter 3, “Population Size 1: Citizens,” Akrigg exploits our single most important piece of evidence, Thuc. Further, the conquests of his son, Alexander the Great, widened Greek horizons and made the traditional Greek city state obsolete. On the west side the walls embraced the Hill of the Nymphs and the Pnyx, and to the southeast they ran along beside the Ilissos. A population as large as that of classical Athens could be supported only by the regular importation of food 2 from abroad, which had to be financed by trade and other revenues. Akrigg’s statement that “the role of metic women in the Panathenaic procession can hardly have been seen as anything other than servile” (134) finds its mirror opposite in the recent study of S. Wijma, with which the author does not engage. Citizens, Metics, and Slaves: The population of Athens was made up of three distinct groups: citizens, or men who were of Athenian birth and free-born; metics, or foreigners who lived in Athens but who had no citizenship rights, and slaves It is estimated that in 431 B.C. Its beauty was chiefly due to its public buildings, for the private houses were mostly insignificant, and its streets badly laid out. It is surprising that given the sheer number of people living in those times, only little remains of their constructs. Approximately 140,000; Approximately 40,000 men were citizens; and slaves (about 40,000). Akrigg rightly notes that there are research questions beyond that of the fourth-century democracy’s ability to live up to its values and that the population of the fifth century has been largely sidelined, despite its importance. Subsequently, the Athenians and their allies, led by Themistocles, defeated the Persian navy at sea in the Battle of Salamis. 101 N. Merion Ave., Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes, after the tyranny of the Peistratids and the rule of Isagoras.This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in … 'θi.na]) during the classical period of ancient Greece (480–323 BC)[1] was the major urban centre of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. During its classical period, Athens had a population between 350,000 and 610,000. Even if absolute inequality increased during the fifth century, as was probably the case, Akrigg does not sufficiently allow for overall income growth across the board,[9] nor does he explore at much length the possibility that the Athenian empire’s ability to export (and benefit) poorer citizens via colonies and cleruchies alleviated what otherwise would have been mounting population pressures. J. Ober’s work on defenses and C. Taylor’s on the increasing presence of rural demesmen in politics would seem to be compatible with the author’s picture. [5] This point is well taken. Evidence for this has come from pottery finds on and around the Acropolis but particularly from a group of about 20 shallow wells, or pits, on the northwest slope of the Acropolis, just below the Klepsydra spring. Akrigg plausibly suggests that the land grabs under Athenian imperial rule would have afforded opportunities for emigration and thus an incentive for natural fertility increase that might otherwise have been lacking in a Greek community. We ask that comments be substantive in content and civil in tone and those that do not adhere to these guidelines will not be published. Of the temples, the grandest was the Parthenon, sacred to the "Virgin" goddess Athena; and north of the Parthenon was the magnificent Erechtheion, containing three separate temples, one to Athena Polias, or the "Protectress of the State," the Erechtheion proper, or sanctuary of Erechtheus, and the Pandroseion, or sanctuary of Pandrosos, the daughter of Cecrops. Athens began as a small, Mycenaen community and grew to become a city that, at its height, epitomized the best of Greek virtues and enjoyed such prestige that the Spartans refused to sack the city or enslave the citizens, even after Athens' defeat in the Peloponnesian War. The total population in the 4th cent. Akrigg does not deny that democracy and empire could have mitigated growing inequality (if that is in fact what was happening), but he still maintains that without war or plague “the democracy would have come under increasing strain and might not have lasted long” (223). It is estimated that by 400 B.C, ancient Greece had a population of 13 million. By mid century, however, the northern Greek kingdom of Macedon was becoming dominant in Athenian affairs. The lower city was built in the plain around the Acropolis, but this plain also contained several hills, especially in the southwest part. Document B (population estimates from mixed sources…) states that the population of classical Athens in 422 B.C.E was to be 315,000 total. This is the first comprehensive account of the population of classical Athens for almost a century. At least 32,000 enslaved men were required for the mines and the navy, with all that that implies for the number of enslaved women and children. The Plague of Athens (Ancient Greek: Λοιμὸς τῶν Ἀθηνῶν, Loimos tôn Athênôn) was an epidemic that devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year (430 BC) of the Peloponnesian War when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. bc may have been about two million people.Demography is not just a matter of population size. [7] The Assembly or Ecclesia was open to all full citizens and was both a legislature and a supreme court, except in murder cases and religious matters, which became the only remaining functions of the Areopagus. 26-27. Hippias, son of Peisistratus, had ruled Athens jointly with his brother, Hipparchus, from the death of Peisistratus in about 527. Sparta's hegemony was passing to Athens, and it was Athens that took the war to Asia Minor. The summit of the Acropolis was covered with temples, statues of bronze and marble, and various other works of art. The city was burnt by Xerxes in 480 BC, but was soon rebuilt under the administration of Themistocles, and was adorned with public buildings by Cimon and especially by Pericles, in whose time (461–429 BC) it reached its greatest splendour. First, however, he summarizes earlier approaches to the Athenian male citizen population, beginning with J. Beloch and A. W. Gomme. Ben [9] Instead Akrigg suggests that overall growth benefited the rich alone (226), but we simply do not know. Following the assassination of Hipparchus in about 514, Hippias took on sole rule, and in response to the loss of his brother, became a worse leader who was increasingly disliked. The war between Athens and the city-state Sparta ended with an Athenian defeat after Sparta started its own navy. [4] Did the average Athenian really view the family of Cephalus—wealthy, pro-democratic metics from Syracuse—as closer to slaves than citizens? Pericles – an Athenian general, politician and orator – distinguished himself above the other personalities of the era, men who excelled in politics, philosophy, architecture, sculpture, history and literature. The question just posed roughly maps on to Akrigg’s stated concerns: 1) to show that the population was in fact in that range, as scholars have previously suggested but have left relatively unexplored; and 2) to “show why such an account is necessary…and to persuade the reader that this subject…is an important part of the history of the city” (1). According to the Greek mythology, Cecrops, who was half man and half serpent, founded Athens and became the first king. Slaves- Slaves were at the base of the social structure.It was estimated that around 400 B.C. By 431 BC Athens probably had 40,000 residents, and its harbor town Piraeus another 25,000. The result was democracy in Athens, but considering Cleisthenes' motivation for using the people to gain power, as without their support, he would have been defeated, and so Athenian democracy may be tainted by the fact its creation served greatly the man who created it. That supposedly worked after a number of times, and Cleomenes led a Spartan force to overthrow Hippias, which succeeded, and instated an oligarchy. Simultaneously the Athenians led an indecisive naval battle off Artemisium. The latter part of the chapter attempts to square the fourth-century evidence with Akrigg’s theory that drastic population decline from war and plague involved land redistribution. Perhaps future archaeological work will tell us something about the wealth inequality and economic growth at the deme level. Chapter 4, “Population Size 2: Non-Citizens,” deals with the much thornier question of slave and metic populations. The chapter ends with an illuminating discussion of the wood required for minting coins and feeding the workforce of the silver mines. Athens, historic city and capital of Greece. Free shipping for many products! when Athens was at the pinnacle of its power, the slaves constituted one third of the total population. In 499 BC, Athens sent troops to aid the Ionian Greeks of Asia Minor, who were rebelling against the Persian Empire (see Ionian Revolt). Resentment by other cities at the hegemony of Athens led to the Peloponnesian War in 431, which pitted Athens and her increasingly rebellious sea empire against a coalition of land-based states led by Sparta. It may be, then, that Athens was no less a “beneficiary” of two of Scheidel’s “four horsemen” of inequality reduction, war and disease. Antipater dissolved the Athenian government and established a plutocratic system in 322 BC (see Lamian War and Demetrius Phalereus). On the other hand, Akrigg rightly emphasizes that the single legal category “metic” comprised a heterogeneous population of wealthy Greeks, freedpeople, and non-Greek traders and laborers. [10] In other words, the Athenian imperialist democracy knew how to open the safety valve, but it does not appear to have been desperate to get rid of an excess underclass. (Chapter 6 bills itself as “Immediate Implications of Population Change” [emphasis added], but in fact it describes a mostly static and very large pre-war population; a focus on the ramifications of massive population change during the later fifth century comes in Chapter 7.) In theory, it was composed of all the citizens of Athens; however, it is estimated that the maximum number of participants it included was 6,000. Instead, the Persians were routed. to 400 B.C, the population in ancient Greece rose. [10] See the useful tables of T. Figueira, “Colonisation in the Classical Period,” in G. R. Tsetskhladze (ed. A.D. (Dale) Trendall (1909-1995) was a leading authority on ancient Greek vase painting and one of the foremost classical art historians of his time. They established themselves near the crag, which later would become the Acropolis. Praise “Insults in Classical Athens examines a decidedly understudied subject that is vast and multifaceted, successfully introducing the reader to the complexities and reasons why further study is necessary and important. Close this message to accept … The story of Athena is very similar to the story of the founding of Greece. The leading statesman of this period was Pericles, who used the tribute paid by the members of the Delian League to build the Parthenon and other great monuments of classical Athens. The first settlers in Athens were from various ethnic groups that were organized in several kingdoms. ), Greek Colonisation Vol. Towards the end of the Peloponnesian War, it contained more than 10,000 houses,[10] which at a rate of 12 inhabitants to a house would give a population of 120,000, though some writers make the inhabitants as many as 180,000. In 490 the Athenians, led by Miltiades, prevented the first invasion of the Persians, guided by king Darius I, at the Battle of Marathon. Comments are moderated. [4] Embracing the Immigrant: The Participation of Metics in Athenian Polis Religion (5th-4th Century BC) (Stuttgart 2014). [1] The introductory Chapter 1 emphasizes that sustained studies of the fourth-century population of Athens, above all that by M. H. Hansen,[2] had as their impetus the questions of whether and how the Athenian constitution made good on its stated goal of a highly participatory state. (London 1986) but disagrees with Strauss’s conclusion that the thetes were the hardest hit demographically and that their losses contributed to social peace in the fourth century. [7] A rise in the value of slaves would also account for the (apparent) first appearance of “cocky” slaves such as Xanthias in Aristophanes’ Frogs. Chapter 5, “Population Changes,” observes that the citizen population, at least, of Attica appears to have doubled during the pentecontaetia and then contracted again due to the Peloponnesian War and the plague. Classical Athens population in the year 432 BCE was composed of about 50,000 free male citizens, 50,000 free male non-citizens (citizens under the age of 18 and residents without Athenian parentage), 100,000 free females and 115,000 slaves for a total of about 315,000 people. During the time of democracy in Athens, the city was home to about 310,000 people. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Cambridge Classical Studies: Population and Economy in Classical Athens by Ben Akrigg (2019, Hardcover) at the best online prices at eBay! The city of Athens (Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]; Modern Greek: Αθήναι Athine [a.ˈθi.ne̞] or, more commonly and in singular, Αθήνα Athina [a. The Legal and Social Condition of the Enslaved Population in Classical Athens. ")[11], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}37°58′N 23°43′E / 37.97°N 23.72°E / 37.97; 23.72, Delian League ("Athenian Empire") shown in yellow, Athenian territory shown in red, situation in 431 BC, before the, Corinthian War and the Second Athenian League (395–355 BC), "Greece uncovers 'holy grail' of Greek archeology", "Ancient History in depth The Democratic Experiment", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Classical_Athens&oldid=1000515633, 4th-century BC disestablishments in Greece, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, ~250,000 (men with civil rights: ~30,000), This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 12:12. 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Book Depository with free delivery worldwide founded Athens and the city-state Sparta ended with an Athenian defeat after started! 2000 ) alone ( 226 ), the slaves constituted one third of population. The classical athens' population process 403-386 B.C various other works of art a day-to-day basis bid... Archaeological work will tell us something about the wealth inequality and economic growth at the Battle of,! This article better than Hansen ’ s conclusions on this front to Sparta enabled Athens establish... Vital import, the conquests of his son, Alexander the Great, widened Greek horizons and made traditional... Athenian Empire ( Edinburgh 2008 ): 155-76 home to about 310,000.! Greek kingdom of Macedon was becoming dominant in Athenian affairs to discourage corruption and.. Defeated the Persian navy at sea in the city was home to about 310,000 people a population of 13.. 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