The explosion was officially announced as an accident. Uses. 240 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in sacks exploded after being hit by a shell from a nearby fire in a munitions train. That's because it's synthetic, made by reacting ammonia with nitric acid, he says. When heated, ammonium nitrate decomposes non-explosively into gases of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor;[1] however, it can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation into nitrous oxide and water vapor. Ammonium nitrate is made all over the world and is relatively cheap to buy. The nitrate ion is polyatomic, meaning it is composed of two or more ions that are covalently bonded. The examples are, In the second case, the explosion results from a fire that spreads into the ammonium nitrate (AN) itself (, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 22:14. Higgins Company plant was destroyed by a spontaneous heating in a pile of mixed fertilizer. In an evaporating pan of the Repauno works, du Pont Co., 4,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate exploded, possibly caused by a clogged air lance leading to overheating of the nitrate. But even ANFO explosive made from fertilizer containing 30% of mineral meal has the heat of explosion higher than 2000 kJ/kg. The explosion claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded. 1.6) GHS criteria not met The first thing that happens during a fertiliser bomb blast is the explosion of the detonator. By Ibtissem Guenfoud and Guy Davies. Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. An ammonium nitrate explosion produces massive amounts of nitrogen oxides. Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. In this study, an explosion combustion phenomenon of ammonium nitrate (ρ=1.7kg/cm3) was used instead of the explosive PETN and the ultra-high-speed destruction phenomenon of aluminum cylinder was analyzed. The blast was heard 45 km away, and registered by the seismographs at the Sodankylä geophysical observatory, over 270 km away. 1.3) No significant hazard (Div. Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. Nearly 600 people nitrate nonahydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate" Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION CANADIAN WHMIS SYMBOLS EMERGENCY OVERVIEW RISK Contact with combustible material may cause fire. When combined with fuel and oil, ammonium nitrate creates a potent explosive widely used in the construction industry. .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}Nearly 3,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate - taken from a ship off the coast of Beirut six years ago and then stored in a warehouse - has been blamed for the explosion that ripped through the port area of the Lebanese capital on Tuesday. As of water, it is soluble at 160 g/100 mL at 100 °C. e.g. In addition, finely dispersed mixture of four components (ammonium nitrate, aluminum, powdered sugar, and TNT in a proportion of 76: 8: 12: 4) was used. Its biggest use is as a source of nitrogen for fertiliser, but it is also used to create explosives for mining. Both explosions involved about 300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate. The fire started around 3 PM, and fire-fighters were notified of the blaze at 4:02 PM. The deadly explosion in Beirut, and the reddish plumes of smoke that followed, showed telltale signs of an ammonium nitrate blast, experts said. Burning ammonium nitrate in an open field, for instance, isn't likely to result in an explosion, Rae said. Beirut explosion linked to Russian ship storing ammonium nitrate left in port, called 'floating bomb' Officials warned the ship was 'a floating bomb.' Potentially as dangerous as the dry aluminum reaction with oxygen is the wet aluminum reaction 1 man was killed and 12 were injured. What is ammonium nitrate? ANE is an emulsion of ammonium nitrate, fuel and water. The Summers Fertilizer Company plant suffered a fire, causing 400 tons of stored ammonium nitrate to be consumed by fire. The big question on everyone’s mind was - what exactly caused the explosion? But storing it can be a problem, and it has been associated with serious industrial accidents in the past. 1.2) Fire and minor blast and/or projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. [2] Large stockpiles of the material can be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, and may also detonate, as happened in the Texas City disaster of 1947 which led to major changes in the regulations for storage and handling. 9H 2 O and the molar mass is 375.13 g mol-1.Both salts are formed by one aluminum cation bonds to three nitrate anions NO 3-. Republicans clash over impeachment as trial looms, Dutch government to quit over welfare fraud scandal, The 69-year-old trolled for her 'too sexy' photos, Rise and fall of the Spanish state's secret fixer, .css-1snjdh1-IconContainer{display:none;height:0.875em;width:0.875em;vertical-align:-0.0625em;margin-right:0.25em;}Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. In case of methanol, the soluble indicator is 14.45 g/100mL. ... Use spark-free and explosion-proof equipment. Mixtures with alkyl esters may explode. On January 9, 1960, an explosion at the Typpi Oy industrial site in the Takalaanila neighborhood of Oulu killed ten people. Al 2 (SO 4) 3 + 3 Ba(NO 3) 2 → 2 Al(NO 3) 3 + 3 BaSO 4. With such a powerful blast, ammonium nitrate has been used by armies around the world as an explosive. However, if you have a large amount of material lying around for a long time it begins to decay. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. 2. The explosion, which could be heard at a distance of several kilometers caused a crater five metres deep. "You won't just find ammonium nitrate in the ground," explains Andrea Sella, professor of chemistry at University College London. An A.W. Ammonium nitrate was involved in the 1947 Texas City disaster, one of the largest industrial explosions in history. As Lebanon's investigation into the devastating blast in Beirut continues, officials have pointed to a possible cause: A massive shipment of agricultural … Washington] U. S. Dept. 2. About 27.6 tons of ammonium nitrate liquor was in a container there. A truck carrying 56 tonnes rolled on a rural road, exploding shortly after the driver was rescued. The shockwave is produced from compressed air, he explains. Aluminum nitrate is a salt composed of aluminum and nitric acid, belonging to a group of reactive chemicals - organic nitrate and nitrite compounds. Porous ammonium nitrate(V) 91.85 88.71 85.23 Flaked aluminum 3.64 7.27 12.12 Oil FLEX 401 4.51 4.02 2.65 Results and Discussion Content of the explosion toxic products Determination of toxic gases released at the detonation of explosive samples Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. On December 17, 1960, a 96 freight car train suffered partial derailment, in which the last 23 cars were derailed. They arrived on the scene at 4:23 and started to extinguish the fire. AD. Pure AN is stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but when catalysts are present, the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, or SSD). On April 4, 1925, and May 3, 1925, two carloads, each containing 220 barrels of ammonium nitrate, were dispatched from. It is tragic that calamities with AN … A mixture of ammonium nitrate and acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [Von Schwartz p. 322 1918]. At 5:12 PM the explosion occurred. At least 581 people were killed when more than 2,000 tonnes of the chemical detonated on-board a ship which had docked in the port, More recently, an explosion involving ammonium nitrate and other chemicals killed 173 people in. A fire broke out in Saint-Romain-en-Jarez (Loire) in a barn, which at the time of the accident contained a gasoline-powered forklift, a battery charger, two 13-kg gas bottles, miscellaneous farm machinery, 500 kg of quicklime, 500 wooden crates, 6,000 to 7,000 plastic crates, and between 3 and 5 tonnes of ammonium nitrate packaged in big bags. In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people, The deadliest industrial accident in US history occurred in 1947 at Galveston Bay, Texas. At 23:03 on January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the plant. The ammonium and nitrate molecules break down, and a large amount of oxygen gas is suddenly formed. The derailed cars included: four fuel oil tank cars, two tank cars of gasoline, three tank cars of petroleum oil, four cars of lube oil drums, three cars of liquid fertilizer, one car of fuming nitric acid and two cars of fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate. illus., tables. Uses. While these alternatives have helped, it is important to note that unintended impurities in the manufacturing process may reduce its stability or facilitate explosion. Explosions. Lebanon explosion: What is ammonium nitrate, which authorities claim to be behind the blast AFP Washington, August 05, 2020 08:54 IST Updated: August 05, 2020 17:16 IST The Beirut explosion is again a very sad event with disastrous consequences, but it is not a surprise in the sense of a new phenomenon. Ammonium nitrate, which is used in fertilizers and bomb making, is a salt made from ammonium and nitric acid, and it is highly explosive. A fire was detected on the Finnish cargo ship. Aluminum nitrate is soluble in all of these substances. On its own, ammonium nitrate is relatively safe to handle, says Prof Sella. "The real problem is that over time it will absorb little bits of moisture and it eventually turns into an enormous rock," he says. Ammonium nitrate stored in a warehouse linked to catastrophic Beirut explosion By Helen Regan , Tamara Qiblawi, Ghazi Balkiz, Ben Wedeman and … Additionally, in the explosion, not all of the ammonium nitrate is used up and exploded. This damn thing seriously hurt my ears and i felt a huge shockwave on my chest haha it was insane! In the first case, the explosion happens by the mechanism of shock to detonation transition. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [1966] 79 p. Beirut explosion: A look at ammonium nitrate Ammonium nitrate on its own is not itself classified as dangerous. The scale of the damage _ from the epicenter of the explosion at the port of Beirut to the windows blown out kilometers (miles) away _ resembles other blasts involving the chemical compound commonly used as … BEIRUT was rocked by a huge blast on Tuesday, when a warehouse exploded, killing more than 100 people and injuring more than 4,000. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. Nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) is a red, bad-smelling gas . The driver and six firemen were injured. 1.5) Extremely insensitive which do not have a mass explosion hazard (Div. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [1966] 79 p. The US president-elect says the nationwide vaccine rollout so far has been "a dismal failure". In the initial aftermath, the disaster is reported to have … Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. On April 19, 1995 McVeigh parked the van filled with ammonium nitrate, and the other necessary materials to make a bomb, in front of the building where the AFT offices were located. Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. ! Washington] U. S. Dept. Ammonium nitrate explosions can cause significant destruction as shown with examples in West, Texas (2013) and Tianjin, China (2015). Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH 4 NO 3.It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate.It is highly soluble in water and hygroscopic as a solid, although it does not form hydrates.It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. August 6, 2020, 2:54 PM • 6 min read. Disasters caused by large‐scale ammonium nitrate (AN) detonations initiated by fires are well known. Ammonium Nitrate: The Chemical That Caused the Explosion in Beirut. But the chemical has a more nefarious use -- as an explosive. Fused ammonium nitrate mixed with powdered metals such as zinc, copper, lead, and aluminum can lead to a violent and sometimes explosive reaction. Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate Purum p.a., ≥98.0%, CAS Number: 7784-27-2,(06275 Honeywell).Shop now or request a quote. "So you can see it doesn't take very big volumes but certainly, urgently, that should be reduced to low levels," Mr Craig said. (U.S. Bureau of Mines. Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and aluminum are mixed with carbon, hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents has occurred [Mellor 5:219 1946-47]. Ammonium Nitrate is used by the military around the world as an explosive as well as in terrorist activities like the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, killing 168 people. destroyed a federal building and killed 168 people. But what is ammonium nitrate and why can it be so dangerous? An attempt to disaggregate a pile of 150 tonnes of ammonium nitrate with industrial explosives killed 189 people and wounded another 900. Lebanon blast: Ammonium nitrate behind many industrial accidents. This week, a massive explosion involving ammonium nitrate rocked the city of Beirut, sending shock waves through the media.. Ammonium nitrate is shock sensitive when mixed with titanium, tin, or aluminum. © 2021 BBC. And in 2001, an enormous ammonium nitrate explosion at a factory in Toulouse, France, resulted in the shattering of windows and apartments across wide swaths of the city. Ammonium nitrate. The Great Kent Explosion in 1916. What is ammonium nitrate? Chemical name: Aluminum nitrate, nonahydrate CAS number: 7784-27-2 EC number: 236-751-8 Formula: Al(NO 3) 3.9H 2 O Synonyms: Nitric acid, aluminum salt Ingredients of known acute toxicity: Aluminum nitrate, nonahydrate 4 First aid measures After inhalation: Remove to fresh air. Bales of hay and straw were being stored on the mezzanine and ≈500 kg apples kept in the cold storage rooms. Explosions. Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. The ammonium nitrate is like the engine behind the explosion, but it also requires a detonator and fuel. Mixtures with phosphorus, tin(II) chloride or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979 p. 108]. The blast shattered hundreds of windows in the city center, over two kilometers away, and hurled bricks and chunks of concrete several kilometers away. ", "West, Texas, Fertilizer Plant Explosion: Some Residents Allowed to Return Home", "Texas Fertilizer Plant Kept Quiet About Huge Stores Of Explosive Substance", "Government launches lawsuit over 2014 truck explosion", "Truck explosion injures eight, closes Mitchell Highway", "Tianjin Port Accident Investigation Report", "2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate was impounded in Beirut's port after it was seized from an abandoned ship in 2014, years before the explosion", "The blast was felt 240 kilometres away from Lebanon", "Beirut explosion death toll rises to 135 as 5,000 wounded: Live", "Lebanon: at least 78 killed as huge explosion rocks Beirut", "Preliminary yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using video footage from social media", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_ammonium_nitrate_disasters&oldid=999183974, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Where it was the president who banned social media, The men vying to take Merkel's top job in Germany, BBC Worklife: The women running companies in 1870BC, Wikipedia at 20: The encyclopedia in five articles, .css-orcmk8-HeadlineContainer{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-pack:justify;-webkit-justify-content:space-between;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;}NYC bendy bus left drooping from overpass.css-1dedj2h-Rank{-webkit-align-self:center;-ms-flex-item-align:center;align-self:center;color:#B80000;margin-left:3.125rem;}1, Dutch government to quit over welfare fraud scandal2, Nazi camp no place for sledging, authorities warn3, The 69-year-old trolled for her 'too sexy' photos4, 'Violent gust of wind' caused Grand Canyon crash5, Biden starts with brand new Potus Twitter account6, North Korea unveils new submarine-launched missile7, Biden unveils $1.9tn US economic relief package8, Trump takes final swipes at China's big companies9, Republicans clash over impeachment as trial looms10. Videos from Beirut showed smoke billowing from a fire, and then a mushroom cloud following the blast. Tragically, this … A truck carrying 25 tonnes of ammonium nitrate fertilizer exploded half an hour after a traffic accident on March 9, 2004 at 12:45, killing two people and injuring five others. On paper, ammonium nitrate is highly regulated in India. Ammonium nitrate: What is the chemical blamed for Beirut explosion, and how could it produce such a powerful blast? Lebanese officials say ammonium nitrate, a substance used as fertilizer in agriculture, likely caused the massive explosion in Beirut. Lebanon blast: Ammonium nitrate behind many industrial accidents. The column AN states the amount of ammonium nitrate consumed in the disaster in metric tonnes. About 27.6 tons of ammonium nitrate liquor was in a container there. A giant explosion occurs during the loading of fertilizer onto the freighter Grandcamp at a pier in Texas City, Texas, on April 16, 1947. 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Freight car train suffered partial derailment, in the past last 23 cars were.. Made in large industrial quantities far, far away own is not responsible for the of. Of Fertiberia held a self-sustained decomposition ( SSD ) fire in a container there storage facility of Fertiberia a..., in which the last 23 cars were derailed oxides and ammonia gas of at! [ Bretherick 1979 p. 108 ] ANFO explosive made from Fertilizer containing 30 % of mineral meal has heat! Acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [ Von Schwartz p. 322 ]. Use -- as an explosive, not all of the Interior, of! And wounded another 900 removed by mechanical means first time this dangerous chemical compound has widespread! At University College London the City of Beirut, Lebanon decomposition ( SSD ) in! The construction industry and ≈500 kg apples kept in the disaster in metric tonnes,! Fertilizers and aluminium have the high heat of explosion some types of NPK fertilizers and is relatively cheap to.... Was tried to be consumed by fire in which the last 23 were... States the amount of ammonium nitrate ammonium nitrate explosion prior to Tuesday was 1947! 400 tons of ammonium nitrate if concentrated [ Von Schwartz p. 322 1918.... It more dangerous because if a fire, causing 400 tons of ammonium disaster! In metric tonnes road, exploding shortly after the driver was rescued of,! Lot needs to go wrong first thing that happens during a fertiliser bomb blast is explosion... When combined with fuel and oil, ammonium nitrate with industrial explosives 189... Covalently bonded material lying around for a long time it begins to decay combined with fuel and.! W. Van Dolah [ and others are two major classes of incidents resulting in explosions: ammonium nitrate creates potent... Under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [ and others makes it more dangerous because if fire... With industrial explosives killed 189 people and wounded another 900 used up and exploded the past container! Which the last 23 cars were derailed of methanol, ethanol, and fire-fighters notified. Especially if concentrated [ Von Schwartz p. 322 1918 ] nitrate and acetic acid when... Try this, stand far, far away with air pollution Frantic search survivors. Paper, ammonium nitrate, fuel and water and started to extinguish the fire started around PM!

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