Moreover, they don’t use the traditional two’s complement representation like in C or Java. See if you can understand how it works, particularly the & and << bitwise operators. Below, you’ll inject secret data into a plain bitmap, which is straightforward to read and write in Python without the need for external dependencies. Bitwise Operators are a group of operators that are used to manipulate or perform operations on operands bit by bit rather all at once. Otherwise, empty bytes are added at the end of every row. If you were to put those binary numbers next to one another on an optical disc, for example, then you’d end up with a long stream of bits without clear boundaries between the characters: One way of knowing how to interpret this information is to designate fixed-length bit patterns for all characters. Now let’s see how we can implement this in a python program. For example, adding two numbers with the same magnitude but opposite signs won’t make them cancel out: The sum of 42 and -42 doesn’t produce zero. Companies that release copyrighted material might use steganography to watermark individual copies and trace the source of a leak, for example. You can rewrite that condition using bitwise operators: Although this expression is syntactically correct, there are a few problems with it. Attention geek! Python Operators: Arithmetic, Assignment, Comparison, Logical, Identity, Membership, Bitwise Operators are special symbols that perform some operation on operands and returns the result. Last but not least, you may deliberately want to use bitwise operators to disable the short-circuit evaluation of Boolean expressions. These are the special symbols that carry out arithmetic and logical computations. An arithmetic right shift (>>), sometimes called the signed right shift operator, maintains the sign of a number by replicating its sign bit before moving bits to the right: In other words, it fills the gap on the left with whatever the sign bit was. For example, instead of a two, the bit will indicate a four after the shift. Python bitwise operators are used to perform bitwise calculations on integers. Note: Python does not include postfix operators like the increment (i++) or decrement (i--) operators available in C. Bitwise operators look virtually the same across different programming languages: As you can see, they’re denoted with strange-looking symbols instead of words. When finding bit sequences of negative values in two’s complement, the trick is to add one to the result after negating the bits: This pushes the bit sequences of negative numbers down by one place, eliminating the notorious minus zero. The shift operators are represented by the symbol < and > and are used in the following form: Left shift: op<

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