As a result of Robespierre’s insistence on associating Terror with Virtue, his efforts to make the republic a morally united patriotic community became equated with the endless bloodshed. Ultimately, 693 deputies voted “yes” in favor of a guilty verdict. Some historians dispute these numbers and estimate that the Legislative Assembly consisted of about 165 Feuillants (the right), about 330 Jacobins (including Girondins; the left), and about 350 deputies, who did not belong to any definite party but voted most often with the left. Bonaparte discovered that many of the defenders were former prisoners of war, ostensibly on parole, so he ordered the garrison and 1,400 prisoners to be executed by bayonet or drowning to save bullets. The execution were completed after trial by revolutionary tribunal. In June, the Convention drafted the Constitution of 1793, which was ratified by popular vote but not enacted. She was guillotined on October 16, 1793. Although committed to republicanism, the Directory distrusted the existing, albeit limited, democracy. Evaluate the decision to execute the king and queen. The Demonstration of June 20, 1792, followed as the last peaceful attempt made by the people of Paris to persuade King Louis XVI of France to abandon his current policy and attempt to follow what they believed to be a more empathetic approach to governing. New members were appointed the day after Robespierre’s execution and term limits were imposed. In the end, Robespierre himself united his enemies when he gave a speech to the Convention in which he railed against enemies and conspiracies, some within the powerful committees. The period from 1793 to 1794 was known as Reign of Terror: 1. The song was written in 1792 by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in Strasbourg after the declaration of war by France against Austria. Its power peaked between August 1793 and July 1794 under the leadership of Robespierre, who established a virtual dictatorship. The Girondins represented the more moderate elements of the Convention and protested the vast influence held in the Convention by Parisians. Robespierre was also the leader of a radical group called the Jacobins. The prime mover, however, for the events of Thermidor 9 was a Montagnard conspiracy led by Jean-Lambert Tallien and Bourdon de l’Oise, which was gradually coalescing and came to pass when the Montagnards finally swayed the deputies of the right over to their side (Robespierre and Saint-Just were themselves Montagnards). The Montagnards, representing a considerably larger portion of the deputies, were much more radical and held strong connections to the sans-culottes of Paris. Sent by Napoleon from Italy, Pierre Augereau and his troops storm Tuileries and capture Generals Charles Pichegru and Willot. These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo Formio, and Bonaparte returned to Paris in December as a hero. Following World War II (1939-45), the democratic United States and the communist Soviet Union became engaged in a series of largely political and economic clashes known as the Cold War. Terror was not an instrument of class war. The Directory reacted by purging all the winners in the Coup of 18 Fructidor, banishing 57 leaders to certain death in Guiana and closing 42 newspapers. The Jacobins wore knee-breeches to go against the rich high-class French. Not all of the conspiratorial groupings were ideologically motivated. In July 1794, Robespierre was overthrown, the Jacobin club was closed, and the surviving Girondins were reinstated. The Directory, a five-member committee that governed France from November 1795 to November 1799, failed to reform the disastrous economy, relied heavily on army and violence, and represented another turn towards dictatorship during the French Revolution. The remainder of the House, 345 deputies, belonged to no definite party and were called the Marsh (Le Marais) or the Plain (La Plaine). When elections were held, most of its candidates were defeated. 379 members of the National Convention, for the most part moderate republicans, were elected to the new legislature. The Revolutionary Tribunal summarily condemned thousands of people to death by guillotine, while mobs beat other victims to death. The Reign of Terror was a dark and violent period of time during the French Revolution. By coming in power, Jacobins abolished the system of slavery in the French colonies, which was one of the greatest social reforms in their reign. The Constitution of 1795 created the Directory with a bicameral legislature consisting of the Council of Five Hundred (lower house) and the Council of Ancients (upper house). In due course of time, revolutionary government came and introduced laws to improve the lives of women. Why was the Bastille hated by all? Augereau_Coup_d_etat_18_Fructidor_in_Tuileries.jpg. Guilty persons were beheaded using guillotine. During the French Revolutionary Wars, Napoleon was successful in a daring invasion of Italy. After that they were married by their families even against their will. The foundation of the Terror was centered around the April 1793 creation of the Committee of Public Safety. He was promoted to captain in the regular army in 1792, despite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a riot against a French army in Corsica. Girondins were convinced that their opponents aspired to a bloody dictatorship, while the Montagnards believed that Girondins were ready for any compromise with conservatives and royalists that would guarantee their remaining in power. When the king formed a new cabinet mostly of Feuillants, the breach between the king on the one hand and the Assembly and the majority of the common people of Paris on the other widened. General Augereau’s soldiers arrested Pichegru, Barthélemy, and the leading royalist deputies of the Councils. French Revolution not only had a long lasting impact on the French society but also on the whole world. A general in the French army and leader of the 1799 coup that overthrew the Directory. The universal male suffrage had thus very little impact and the voters elected the same sort of men that the active citizens had chosen in 1791. La_fournu00e9e_des_Girondins_10-11-1793.jpg. With civil war spreading from the Vendée and hostile armies surrounding France on all sides, the Revolutionary government decided to make “Terror” the order of the day (September 5 decree) and to take harsh measures against those suspected of being … In December 1793, the Convention formally conferred executive power upon the Committee and Robespierre established a virtual dictatorship. Only one out of the five original members served on the Directory throughout its entire existence. The Left drew its inspiration from the more radical tendency of the Enlightenment, regarded the émigré nobles as traitors, and espoused anticlericalism. Not a single deputy voted “no,” although 26 attached some condition to their votes. The former Louis XVI, now simply named Citoyen Louis Capet (Citizen Louis Capet), was executed by guillotine. The year of Jacobin rule was the first time in history that terror became an official government policy, with the stated aim to use violence to achieve a higher political goal. Chaos persisted until the National Convention, elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution, met on September 20, 1792, and became the new de facto government of France. Guillotine, a device, named after inventor Dr. Guillotin, was used to behead a person at that time. Chaos persisted until the National Convention, elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution, met on September 20, 1792, and became the new de facto government of France. The execution of the Girondins, moderate republicans, enemies of the more radical Jacobins. Within days, the Convention was overtaken by factional conflicts. Peasants were forced to sell their grains on fixed price in cities. On October 31, 1795, the members of the Council of Five Hundred submitted a list of candidates to the Council of Ancients, which chose the first Directory. The war declared on April 20, 1792, against Austria (soon joined by Prussia) started as a disaster for the French. On Thermidor 8 (July 26), he gave a speech to the Convention in which he railed against enemies and conspiracies, some within the powerful committees. They were committed to the ideals of the Revolution and thus generally inclined to side with the left but would also occasionally back proposals from the right. In the first encounter between the two armies, Napoleon pushed back his opponents and advanced deep into Austrian territory. The prime mover for the events was a Montagnard conspiracy, which was gradually coalescing and came to pass when the Montagnards finally swayed the deputies of the right over to their side. The French Revolution is a watershed development in the modern history. 2 Answers. During the Reign of Terror, the sans-culottes and the Hébertists put pressure on the National Convention delegates and contributed to the overall instability of France. He was a lawyer and the leader of the Jacobins, which was a radical political group. This effectively led to Bonaparte’s dictatorship and in 1804 to his proclamation as emperor, which ended the specifically republican phase of the French Revolution. They were suspicious of Louis XVI, some favoring a general European war both to spread the new ideals of liberty and equality and to put the king’s loyalty to the test. After this campaign, he was sent on a mission to the Republic of Genoa to determine that country’s intentions towards France. “La Marseillaise” is the national anthem of France. The massacre of these groups became known as the White Terror. Like other laws, it was indefinitely suspended and in October, it was announced that the government of France would be “revolutionary until the peace.” In an attempt to make their stance known to the world, the National Convention, led by Robespierre, also released a statement of French foreign policy. Influenced by 18th-century Enlightenment philosophes such as Rousseau and Montesquieu, Robespierre was a capable articulator of the beliefs of the left-wing bourgeoisie and a deist. REIGN OF TERROR: 1) Explain in a paragraph or two, what happened in France following the execution of King Louis. • All those he saw as enemies of the Republic, ex-nobles, clergy, political opponents were arrested, tried and guillotined if found guilty. It succeeded the Legislative Assembly  and founded the First Republic after the Insurrection of August 10, 1792. On November 3, 1795, a bicameral parliament called the Directory was established and the National Convention ceased to exist. The Reign of Terror grew out of the events of the summer of 1792. In October 1795, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention. Across Europe, conservatives were horrified and monarchies called for war against revolutionary France. The National Convention was a single-chamber assembly in France from September 20, 1792, to October 26, 1795, during the French Revolution. In addition, the sans-culottes were violently suppressed by the Muscadin, a group of street fighters organized by the new government. In this 14-month period about 17000 people including innocents were executed. The sans-culottes, exasperated by the inadequacies of the government, invaded the Convention and overthrew the Girondins. Ultimately, 693 deputies voted “yes” for a guilty verdict. Robespierre, the head of the Jacobin Club, followed the policy of severe control and punishment. He remains one of the most celebrated and controversial political figures in human history. The foundation of the Terror was the April 1793 creation of the Committee of Public Safety. Use of Citoyen and Citoyenne for men and women citizen started instead of the traditional Sir (Monsieur) and Madam (Madame). Chaos persisted until the National Convention, elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution, met on September 20, 1792, and became the new de facto government of France. 1,400 royalists died and the rest fled. The Jacobins were formally known as the Society of the Friends of the Constitution. Shortly after that, following a decisive military victory over Austria at the Battle of Fleurus, Robespierre was overthrown on July 27, 1794. He also brought out 1,000 wounded men. All … The Reign of Terror, also known simply as The Terror, was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". He returned to Corsica and came into conflict with the Corsican leader Pasquale Paoli, who decided to split with France and sabotage the French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena. According to new constitution; These new provisions were brought to prevent the concentration of power in one-man executive; as happened in the reign of Jacobins. Robespierre’s only real political power at the time lay in the Jacobin Club, which had extended itself beyond the borders of Paris and into the country. Thus, the First Coalition was formed. He also took part in an expedition to take back Corsica from the British, but the French were repelled by the British Royal Navy. 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